Radiation Protection and Dosimetry of the Extremities

The skin and in particular the extremities may be exposed to significant amounts of radiation, especially in workplaces where open radioactive sources are being produced or applied and in interventional radiology applications. Although several international recommendations have covered this topic (such as the ORAMED study, ISO 15382 and Annex E of ICRP-106), up to now there is little harmonization in the dosimetry and protection of the extremities in practice.

The aim of this NCS subcommittee is to develop guidelines with respect to the dosimetry and protection of the extremities, with special attention to applications of open radioactive sources and exposures in interventional radiology. The guidelines will be based on current literature as well as the experience of the participating members of this subcommittee.

The first meeting of this committee was 30 September 2019.

Topics to be covered            

Summary or overview of the international recommendations.

  • How to adequately estimate the maximum extremity dose (application of correction factors, dependence of the dosimeter on the radiation quality);
  • Guidance on what situations require monitoring;
  • Recommended monitoring location;
  • Guidance on the calculation of extremity dose (special attention to beta sources and extremity dose due to contamination);
  • Tools which are available or could be used for calculation of the extremity dose.



  • Theo Adriaensen (Amphia Hospital)
  • Tom Grimbergen (Mirion Dosimetry Services, representative NCS board)
  • Robert Kollaard (NRG, chair, kollaard-at-nrg.eu)
  • Pieternel van der Tol (Radboudumc)
  • Emmie Meijne (UMCG)
  • Ruud Brans 
  • Johan de Jong (Arbo Unie)
  • Filip Vanhavere (SCK.CEN)
  • Alie Vegter (Treant Hospital)
  • Bart Vermolen (Gelderse Vallei Hospital)
  • Patricia Bekhuis (RIVM, secretary)
  • Robert Westland (Amsterdam UMC) 
  • Alexander Maass (UMCG)
  • Ellis Winters (NRG)
  • Nanko de Graaf (Erasmus MC)